Management Science

BySlide Scope

What is Indian Business Environment?

This PPT is made by Management Professionals from University of Lucknow, India. It is one the oldest and reputed institutions in India.
This PPT is an answer for following questions :
1. What is Environment ?
2. What is Business ?
3. What is Business Environment?
4. What is Business Environment in India?
This ppt has some interesting case studies on big and small Enterprises based in India.
4th Slide of this Presentation is about various factors that affect a business environment. These factors are :
  • Social Factors,
  • Economical Factors
  • Government Factors
  • Geographical Factors
  • Technological Factors
  • Political Factors
  • Legal Factors
  • Ecological Factors and many more

All the factors are explained thoroughly in penultimate slides.

BySlide Scope

Controlling-Traditional Techniques

Controlling-Traditional Techniques

  1. 1. Control is making sure that something happen the way it was planned to happen. As implied in this definition, planning and controlling are virtually inseparable functions.
  2. 2.  Traditional techniques  Modern techniques
  3. 3.  The Traditional Control Devices (the Budget)  The Traditional no Budgetary Control Devices
  4. 4.  Revenue and expense budgets  Time, space, material, and product budgets  Capital expenditure budgets  Cash budgets  Balance sheet budgets  Budget summaries  Zero- base budgeting
  5. 5.  There are, of course, many traditional control devices not connected with budgets, although some may be related to, and used with, budgetary controls. Among the most important of these are: statistical data, special reports and analysis, analysis of break- even points, the operational audit, and the personal observation.
  6. 6. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Column2 Column3 Column4
  7. 7.  An interesting control device is the break even chart. This chart depicts the relationship of sales and expenses in such a way as to show at what volume revenues exactly cover expenses.
  8. 8.  Another effective tool of managerial control is the internal audit or, as it is now coming to be called, the operational audit. Operational auditing, in its broadest sense, is the regular and independent appraisal, by a staff of internal auditors, of the accounting, financial, and other operations of a business.
  9. 9.  In any preoccupation with the devices of managerial control, one should never overlook the importance of control through personal observation.